Dawn of Independence

20th Century – Dawn of Independence

Meanwhile, Calcutta was going through a period of scientific, cultural, spiritual and literary transition. In 1895, Scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose experimented on transmission through radio waves at the prestigious Town Hall. In1896, the first motor car appeared on the city’s street. In 1899, electricity was generated for the first time in Calcutta. In 1902, the first electric tram car from Esplanade to Kidderpore was launched. In 1913, Rabindranath Tagore, the great poet and writer of Bengal received the historical Nobel Prize in literature. In 1929, Agnes Goinxha Bejaxhiu (Mother Teresa) came to Calcutta to join Bengal Loreto Mission which eventually led to the foundation of Missionaries of Charity Mother House.

In the year 1905, Bengal witnessed the horrors of partition under the Governorship of Lord Curzon. The nationalist movement gained momentum shortly after India was hit by World War II. British forces started maneuvering sullied tactics to fragment the country’s unity. Capital was moved to Delhi. The shifts created tumulus consequences. The astuteness and avarice of the British led to the fragmentation of the country. Riots broke all over the country. In the August of 1946, ‘Calcutta Killing’ took place. The brutal riot tore apart Bengal. Mahatma Gandhi traveled to Calcutta to protest against the partition and pray for communal peace. Unfortunately, the divide couldn’t be contained which led to the formation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

The dawn of Independence on 15th August 1947, was no doubt an exhilarating moment for the countrymen but it was equally a painful saga of separation and sorrow in the chronicle of India’s fight for Independence and Kolkata stands witness to all of that.